The history of painting dates back to prehistory, Western painting is a continuing tradition, although interrupted by styles, until the 19th century, figurative and classical art were a trend.
Art, since the Middle Ages, was in the hands of the church, kings, aristocracy and some wealthy families, almost always for the purpose of patronage.
In the baroque, the upper middle class begins to commission works from artists.
In the 19th century, the first art galleries began to be established, which in turn acted as patrons of some painters, until today.
It is said that oil painting was discovered by the painter Jan Van Eyck (1370-1440), but this technique had been known for centuries and was widely used in the Middle Ages. This technique allows the paintings to have a bright and striking finish that lasts over time.
Oil painting has evolved over the centuries into different styles and artistic currents. The Flemish painting that was done in the Middle Ages is one of the most famous, in impressionism, realism and modernism it was also widely used.
The most famous and influential painters in the history of art have in common an innate skill, technique and incomparable creativity.
The most recognized artists in the world are: Leonardo Da Vinci (Vinci, 1452-Amboise, 1519), who conceived revolutionary ways to create impressive. compositions; Michelangelo (Caprese, 1475-Rome, 1564) with a majestic mastery of fresco painting; Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn (Leiden, 1606-Amsterdam, 1669) with his masterful use of light, as well as his expressive approach to painting; Joseph Mallord William Turner (London, 1775 - London, 1851), forerunner of modern art, with his traditional neoclassical painting and foray into magnificent realism; Vincent Willem van Gogh (Zundert, 1853-Auvers-sur-Oise, 1890) famous for his excellence in the use of light and colour; Claude Monet (France, 1840–1926) a great student of light and time, an expert in painting outdoors and the greatest representative of Impressionism; Pablo Picasso (Málaga, 1881–Mougins, 1973) excelled at Cubism but showed that classic art can be mastered, and then turned into something modern and fresh.
Throughout history, ancient painting has been adopting different styles depending on the media, supports and techniques used.
In the Renaissance, for example, oil painting replaced the painting of frescoes made with tempera paint. The different painting techniques are classified according to their dissolution and fixation of the pigments in the support where they are going to be painted. The techniques most used for their quality and resistance over the years are, first of all, oil, which allows pigments to be mixed with oil; gouache or "gouache", where the pigment is ground and mixed with gum arabic, is the same as watercolor but with more water added to the formula.
The most common styles of painting throughout its history are: realism, hyperrealism, figurative, surrealism, impressionism, expressionism and abstract.
The most famous painting in the world is Gioconda or Mona Lisa by Leonardo Da Vinci, followed by Vincent Van Gogh's Starry Night, with its swirls and striking blues and yellows of paint.
The Scream by Edvard Munch trying to block a piercing scream that comes from nature.
El Guernika by Pablo Picasso which recounts the German aerial bombardment of the city of Guernica during the Spanish civil war.
Gustav Klimt with his painting The Kiss, an allegory of love with Byzantine artistic influences.
Johannes Vermeer author of Girl with a Pearl Earring, which is not a portrait but an imaginary portrait.
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